Egypt has a long history of civilisation from before 3000BC. It became subject to the Greeks, Romans, Arabs and Ottomans and subsequently the French (briefly) and the British who finally left in 1956. It has been involved in combat with Israel although it supported her right to exist. Its current attitude is ambivalent but appears to be turning hostile. The new constitution which favours Islam rather than the previous secular position could bring about a swing to greater hostility.


Capital: Cairo


Population: 83,688,164 (July 2012 est.)

Ethnic Groups : Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 91% of the total population. Ethnic minorities include the Abazas, Turks, Greeks, Bedouin Arab tribes living in the eastern deserts and the Sinai Peninsula, the Berber-speaking Siwis (Amazigh) of the Siwa Oasis, and the Nubian communities clustered along the Nile. There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanization increases.

Egypt also hosts an unknown number of refugees and asylum seekers, estimated to be between 500,000 and 3 million. There are some 70,000 Palestinian refugees, and about 150,000 recently arrived Iraqi refugees, but the number of the largest group, the Sudanese, is contested. The once-vibrant Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious occasions and for tourism.

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions: Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion. The percentage of the adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt, with different sources citing different figures. Around 90% are identified as Muslim. A significant number of Muslim Egyptians also follow native Sufiorders, and there is a minority of Shi’a. Islam plays a central role in the lives of most Egyptian Muslims. There is a significant Christian minority in Egypt, who make up around 10% of the population. Over 90% of Egyptian Christians belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Church. Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church of Egypt and various other Protestant denominations. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria.

Millions of Egyptians follow the Christian faith as members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from a disproportional representation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches. The Pew Forum on Religion u0026amp; Public Life ranks Egypt as the fifth worst country in the world for religious freedom. The Pew Forum also ranks Egypt among the 12 worst countries in the world in terms of religious violence against religious minorities and in terms of social hostilities against Christians.

Living conditions: Infant mortality: 24.23 deaths/1,000 live births, (male: 25.8 deaths/1,000 live births, female: 22.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.) Life expectancy: total population: 72.93 years, (male: 70.33 years, female: 75.66 years (2012 est.) Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write, total population: 72%, (male: 80.3% , female: 63.5% (2010 est.)

Egyptian society is moderately unequal in terms of income distribution, with an estimated “35 to 40%” of Egypt’s population earning less than the equivalent of $2 a day, while only around 2–3% may be considered wealthy.


Government: Republic.


Executive: chief of state: President Muhammad MURSI (since 30 June 2012); vice president Mohamed MEKKY (since 13 August 2012) resigned on 22nd December.

head of government: Prime Minister Hisham QANDIL (since 24 July 2012)

cabinet: Prime Minister GANZOURI asked to form a new government on 27 November 2011 .

Legislative: bicameral system consists of the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (Shura Council) that traditionally functions mostly in a consultative role (270 seats; 180 members elected by popular vote, 90 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members) and the People’s Assembly or Majlis al-Sha’b (508 seats; 498 members elected by popular vote, 64 seats reserved for women, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

Judicial: Supreme Constitutional Court


Today, 27th December 2012, President Mursi hailed the national referendum result adopting a new constitution which has been bitterly opposed by the government opposition parties who fear the Islamic Brotherhood sponsored document will make way for full Sharia law and diminish the rights of women and non-Muslims.



  • For God’s protection of Christians in Egypt.

  • For the establishment of CPM in Egypt.

  • For the identification of significant leaders to attend Nairobi.

  • For the fulfillment of biblical prophesy for the prosperity of Egypt. 

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