Capital: –Kigali (est. pop. 1 million). Other cities–Muhanga (formerly Gitarama), Huye (formerly Butare), Musanze (formerly Ruhengeri), Rubavu (formerly Gisenyi), Gicumbi (formerly Byumba), and Rusizi (formerly Cyangugu).
Population: (2011 est.): 10.7 million
People Groups: Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa (pigmy)
Languages: Kinyarwanda, French, English
Religions: Christian 96.9%, Muslim 1.3%, traditional African 0.1%, other 0.9%, 0.7% claim no religious beliefs.
Government: Type: Republic.
Executive–president Paul Kagame (chief of state), prime minister Pierre-Damien Habumuremyi (head of government).
Legislative–80-seat Chamber of Deputies; 26-member Senate.
Judicial–Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees.
Living Conditions: Education: compulsory education to year 12 was established in 2011. Health is improving: Infant mortality rate (2010 est.)–50 deaths/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)–49.8 years. The population is mainly rural (80%) with subsistence farming supporting most families.
History: As in Rwanda, tribal enmity between Tutsi and Hutu has dominated politics, culminating in the 1994 genocide when 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu were murdered in two months by Hutu militia bands, encouraged by the government. Many fled to neighbouring countries and were not allowed to return after the war. A democratic system has now been established and is slowly bringing unity to the nation.
A pulling down of the stronghold of tribalism.
Total forgiveness and reconciliation between Hutu and Tutsi.
Identification of Men of Peace and an openness to CPM.
Continuing progress in democratization of the country.
Understanding of true Christianity.