Capital: Mogadishu. Other cities–Beledweyne, Kismayo, Baidoa, Jowhar, Merca, Galkacyo, Garoowe, Bosasso, Hargeisa, Berbera.


Population: (2011 est., no census exists): 9.9 million (of which an estimated 2 million in Somaliland).


People Groups: Somali, with a small non-Somali minority (mostly Bantu and Arabs).

Languages: Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English.


Religions: 99.9% Muslim.


Type: Transitional government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG).
Independence: July 1, 1960 (from a merger between the former Somaliland Protectorate under British rule, which became independent from the U.K. on June 26, 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on July 1, 1960, to form the Somali Republic).
Constitution: None in force. Note: A Transitional Federal Charter was established in February 2004 and is expected to serve as the basis for a future constitution in Somalia.

Branches: Executive—TFG President, TFG Prime Minister, cabinet (Council of Ministers).

Legislative–Transitional Federal Parliament.

Judicial–Supreme Court not functioning; no functioning nationwide legal system; informal legal system based on previously codified law, Islamic (shari’a) law, customary practices, and the provisions of the Transitional Federal Charter.

Note: Two regional administrations exist in northern Somalia–the self-declared “Republic of Somaliland” in the northwest and the semi-autonomous state of Puntland in the northeast.

Political party: None. Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (no nationwide elections)


Living Conditions: Education: Literacy–total population that can read and write, 37.8%: male 49.7%; female 25.8%. Health: Infant mortality rate–109. /1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth–total population: 50.4 years.
Work force (3.4 million; very few are skilled workers): Pastoral nomad–60%. Agriculture, government, trading, fishing, industry, handicrafts, and other–40%.

Per capita GDP (2010 est.): $600.


History: Somalia has a long history of internal conflict as well as with surrounding nations such as Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibuti. Since 1991 there has been no stable central government and areas have been controlled by war lords. At the moment, the UN-backed transitional Somali government, whose mandate expires in August, only controls the capital. Piracy has become a major source of income.


The road between Mogadishu and Afgoye town is known as the Afgoye corridor – and is home to one of the biggest concentrations of internally displaced people, with up to 400,000 living in makeshift camps.

The town of Afgoye, 30km north-west of Mogadishu, lies on a strategic crossroads for routes to the north, west and south of Somalia.

Hundreds of Somali government forces backed by AU soldiers and tanks launched a fresh offensive on the town on Tuesday 22 May, moving out in a pre-dawn attack from Daynile, a suburb of Mogadishu.

Analysts say if they take Afgoye it would be a major blow to al-Shabab – and help secure the capital, where the group continues to stage suicide attacks.

Meanwhile, Somali leaders, who have been meeting this week in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, have set a new deadline of August for the approval of a new constitution and the appointment of MPs, who will elect a new president.






Pray for:


  • The continued conflicts to cause men and women to look for salvation outside of Islam.

  • A sovereign move of the Holy Spirit in dreams and visions to reveal Jesus.

  • Opportunities to establish CPM

  • The Lord to raise up workers for the harvest field, especially in the camps for refugees and IDPs.

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