Republic of Sudan, sometimes called North Sudan, is an Arab state in North Africa (it is also considered to be part of the Middle East). It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. The population of Sudan is a combination of indigenous inhabitants of Nile Valley, and descendants of migrants from the Arabian Peninsula. Due to the process of Arabisation common throughout the rest of the Arab world, today Arab culture predominates in Sudan. The overwhelming majority of the population of Sudan adheres to Islam. The Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves.
The people of Sudan have a long history extending from antiquity which is intertwined with the history of Egypt. Sudan suffered seventeen years of civil war during the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972) followed by ethnic, religious and economic conflicts between the Muslim Arabs of Northern Sudan and the mostly animist and Christian Nilotes of Southern Sudan. This led to the Second Sudanese Civil War in 1983. Because of continuing political and military struggles, Sudan was seized in a bloodless coup d’état by colonel Omar al-Bashir in 1989, who thereafter proclaimed himself President of Sudan. The civil war ended with the signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement which granted autonomy to what was then the southern region of the country. Following a referendum held in January 2011, South Sudan seceded on 9 July 2011 with the consent of Sudan.
Population: 34,206,710 note: includes the population of South Sudan (8,260,490); demographic data includes South Sudan (July 2012 est.)
Ethnic groups: Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
note: program of “Arabization” in process
Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority.
97 percent of the population adheres to Islam. With very few exceptions of Shia Muslims, the Sudanese Muslims are entirely adherents to Sunni branch, and Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, Almost all Muslims are Sunni, although there are significant distinctions between followers of different Sunni traditions. Two popular divisions, the Ansar and the Khatmia, are associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist Parties, respectively. There are significant but long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Christians in Khartoum and other northern cities.
There are also Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities in Khartoum and eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past few decades. Other Christian groups with smaller followings in the country include the Africa Inland Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Sudan Church of Christ, the Sudan Interior Church, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Sudan Pentecostal Church, the Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the North)
In 1964 all foreign missionaries were made to leave southern Sudan because of the civil war. A few groups maintained missionaries in the north. The Sudan Pentecostal Church, which has grown significantly in the south, was started later by the Swedish.
Living conditions: infant mortality: total: 55.63 deaths/1,000 live births, male: 61.24 deaths/1,000 live births, female: 49.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy: total population: 62.57 years, male: 60.58 years, female: 64.67 years (2012 est.) Poverty is widespread. Droughts and warfare have often led to food shortage. Many refugees live within the borders. A recent peace accord with independent South Sudan is unlikely to make much difference, the main cause of conflict being oil revenues and disputed territory.
Government: Federal republic ruled by the National Congress Party the (NCP), which came to power by military coup in 1989; the CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which since 2005 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the south Sudan-based Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), was disbanded following the secession of South Sudan.
Executive: chief of state and head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note – the NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR’s cabinet.
Legislative: bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; 60% from geographic constituencies, 25% from a women’s list, and 15% from party lists; members to serve six-year terms)
Judicial: Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary. System based on British justice and Sharia law.
- 1. workers for the the Lord’s harvest field.
- 2. men of peace to provide entry for CPM.
- 3. peace between north and south to be maintained.